I've created a matrix of most EAP authentication protocols, at least those you will see most likely in real life, some of them are not really used anymore because of the lack of security they provide, however you still might see them available in most popular Radius servers.
A lot of the information you see in this comparison was based on the CWSP study guide, I added a little more of history like who start working on those protocols, like PEAP, which was initially developed by Microsoft, Cisco and RSA. I've also included some other useful information about client deployments.
This will help you choose the best authentication protocols based on security provided and networks needs. Most people usually do PEAP/MS-CHAPv2 and EAP-TLS, I personally like PEAP-EAP-TLS, which is basically EAL-TLS inside PEAP. For further details take a look at the CWSP certification.